Extensible Markup Language, or simple XML became a W3C recommendation on February 10th 1998. XML is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable. It is defined in the XML 1.0 Specification and produced by the W3C,Continue Reading


The Java programming language process was initiated in 1991 by James Gosling, Mike Sheridan, and Patrick Naughton and was originally designed for interactive television and kitchen stuff. The language was initially called Oak after an oak tree that stood outside Gosling’s office; it went by the name Green later, andContinue Reading

In a multi-tier environment (eg. eCommerce development environment), the deployed web applications are separated into three different physical layers: Presentation Layer; Controller Layer; Data Layer. Of this three, the most complex layer is the “Controller Layer” which contains all of our business logic. In an eCommerce application the controller willContinue Reading

At first, a user would request a resource (a web page, an image or a video), and the server would return it; simple, but very limited because the webpages were static. With the growth of commercial activity on the Web, companies had to deliver dynamic content to their customers. So,Continue Reading

PL/SQL Programming Language

PL/SQL (Procedural Language/Structured Query Language) is Oracle Corporation’s procedural extension language for SQL and the Oracle relational database. PL/SQL’s general syntax resembles that of Ada or Pascal. PL/SQL is one of three key programming languages embedded in the Oracle Database, along with SQL itself and Java. PL/SQL is available inContinue Reading


Structured Query Language, or simple SQL is a programming language designed for managing data in relational database management systems (RDBMS). Its scope includes data insert, query, update and delete, schema creation and modification, and data access control. SQL was initially developed at IBM by Donald D. Chamberlin and Raymond F.Continue Reading

Rules to remember when defining a package statement: There can be EXACTLY ONE package statement in a java source code file. Package and sub-package names should always be in lowercase (according to Java naming conventions). Their names should follow the rules defined for valid java identifiers. The package and sub-packageContinue Reading